• Holism & Reductionism

    Follow along with the course eBook: https://goo.gl/sWUF5j See the full course: http://complexitylabs.io/coursesHolism and reductionism represent two paradigms or worldviews within science and philosophy that provide fundamentally different accounts as how to best view, interpret and reason about the world around us. Reductionism places an emphasis on the constituent parts of a system, while holism places an emphasis on the whole system. Twitter: https://goo.gl/Nu6Qap Facebook: https://goo.gl/ggxGMT LinkedIn:https://goo.gl/3v1vwF

    published: 25 Sep 2016
  • Reductionism

    A short introduction to the concepts of reductionism and emergence in philosophy and science, with their profound implications for human phenomena such as free will, consciousness, and morality.

    published: 10 Oct 2012
  • The Reductionist Delusion

    Please watch this video in fullscreen and high-definition (1080p) for the optimal viewing experience. --- Is life really a game of pinball? Are human actions merely the result of initial conditions, physics, and chance? This view has been adopted by some of the leading scientists of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. However, is it a hypothesis truly scientific? Does the data taken from both experimental science and real life experience support such a claim or does it point to a different conclusion? The Reductionist Delusion presents a critical look, from the position of commonsense illustrated using statistical mathematics, at the theoretical position that all life's actions are the result of initial conditions, physics, and chance. --- This video is licensed under CC BY...

    published: 30 Apr 2014
  • 21. Chaos and Reductionism

    (May 19, 2010) Professor Robert Sapolsky gives what he calls "one of the most difficult lectures of the course" about chaos and reductionism. He references a book that he assigned to his students. This lecture focuses on reduction science and breaking things down to their component parts in order to understand them best. Stanford University: http://www.stanford.edu/ Stanford Department of Biology: http://biology.stanford.edu/ Stanford University Channel on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/stanford

    published: 01 Feb 2011
  • Lecture 3 Ken Wilber's Scientific Reductionism

    published: 10 Sep 2015
  • How Reductionism Uncovered Secrets of Long-term and Short-term Memory | Eric Kandel

    A powerful scientific method of observation has helped scientists understand the brain. That method closely parallels Nobel Prize-winner Eric Kandel's journey to make his most famous discoveries. Kandel's latest book is "Reductionism in Art and Brain Science: Bridging the Two Cultures" (https://goo.gl/z9xUXK). Read more at BigThink.com: http://bigthink.com/videos/eric-kandel-on-reductionism-and-the-biology-of-memory Follow Big Think here: YouTube: http://goo.gl/CPTsV5 Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BigThinkdotcom Twitter: https://twitter.com/bigthink Transcript - What reductionism allows you to do is to take a complex problem and focus on one component of it and try to understand it in some detail. And sometimes you can just do it by focusing on one component, other times it requir...

    published: 26 Oct 2016
  • Emergence, Top Down Causation and Reductionism

    An interview with Prof. George F. R. Ellis (University of Cape Town, South Africa) on the occasion of his research seminar for The Faraday Institute for Science and Religion, 30 April 2013, in Cambridge.

    published: 08 May 2013
  • Reductionism

    Find out more http://www.TimFreke.com A short clip of philosopher Tim Freke talking about reductionism in science and spirituality.

    published: 09 Jun 2015
  • Theology and Scientific Reductionism

    Panelists (from left to right) Dr. Paul Louis Metzger (Professor of Theology of Culture, Multnomah University and Seminary) Dr. Steven Kolmes (Chair of Science, University of Portland) Derrick Peterson (M.Div.T.S., Th.M.) Dr. Sarah Gall (Chair of Biology, Multnomah University) Sharad Yadav (Pastor of Bread and Wine Church, Portland) Dr. David Wilson (Adjunct Professor of Theology, George Fox University)

    published: 08 Jun 2017
  • Samir Okasha - Individualism and reductionism in evolutionary biology

    Professor Samir Okasha (University of Bristol) speaks at the seminar series Philosophy of Science: Contemporary Debates, 26th March 2015.

    published: 30 Mar 2017
  • Revise Psychology: Reductionism Preview

    Psychology Revision series for A-level and AP Psychology teachers and students. This revision film uses the example of obesity to outline and evaluate reductionist and holistic approaches in psychology. The full film covers key: • definitions: reductionism, scientific parsimony, holism • applications: obesity, • evaluations: uses and limitations of reductionist and holistic approaches

    published: 27 Apr 2015
  • Robert Sapolsky - The usefulness of reductionism and reductive science

    21. Chaos and Reductionism http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_njf8jwEGRo 01-31-30 - 01-37-26

    published: 18 Jun 2016
  • Re: Scientific Reductionism

    Video Cam Direct Upload

    published: 04 Apr 2009
  • Reductionism

    Reductionism

    published: 28 Dec 2006
  • What is Reductionism? | Definition of Reductionism | Reductionism Explained

    Reductionism refers to several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other phenomena, the latter of which are considered in some manner simpler or more fundamental. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy suggests that reductionism is "one of the most used and abused terms in the philosophical lexicon" and suggests a three part division: 1. Ontological reductionism: a belief that the whole of reality consists of a minimal number of parts. 2. Methodological reductionism: the scientific attempt to provide explanation in terms of ever smaller entities. 3. Theory reductionism: the suggestion that a newer theory does not replace or absorb an older one, but reduces it to more basic terms. Theory reduction itself is divisible into t...

    published: 28 Nov 2017
  • Philosophy of Science with Hilary Putnam

    Bryan Magee and Hilary Putnam discuss some of the basic issues in the philosophy of science and the philosophy of mathematics including the nature of scientific knowledge, methodology, demarcation, objectivity, the notion of truth (the correspondence theory), inductive logic, reductionism, the fact-value dichotomy, materialism, and various other things... Hilary Putnam was an American philosopher, mathematician, and computer scientist who was a central figure in analytic philosophy. He made important contributions to many fields, including logic, philosophy of mind, mathematics, philosophy of language, epistemology, and the philosophy of science. I recommend Putnam's work. You can read his book "Reason, Truth, and History" online here: https://ia902606.us.archive.org/23/items/HilaryPutna...

    published: 09 Nov 2015
  • Reductionism, Dawkins, & Intelligent Design (Barbara Drossel lecture highlights)

    Barbara Drossel explains some problems with reductionism, which shows up both in Dawkins's thought and in the thinking of some Intelligent Design Theory advocates. FULL LENGTH VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C94d2TtOKJs This project/publication was made possible through the support of a grant from Templeton World Charity Foundation, Inc. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of Templeton World Charity Foundation, Inc.

    published: 19 Jan 2017
  • Brave New World. Nature, culture and the limits of reductionism, Susan Haack

    The lecture of Susan Haack in the lecture series "The Limits of Science VII: Ingenious scholars - brilliant theories". The intro music is a fragment of "Readers! Do You Read?" by Chris Zabriskie (CC BY 4.0).

    published: 28 Sep 2015
  • Limits of science and scientific method, alternatives to reductionism George Ellis, 2004 Templeton Prize winner

    published: 08 Jul 2009
  • What is Reductionism in Science?

    Reductionism is breaking down of a complex system in to simple constituent systems to so that laws of physics can be applied on these systems and we can understand the working of the complex system. Kizoa Movie - Video - Slideshow Maker - http://www.kizoa.com

    published: 03 Jan 2018
  • reductionism psychology gis

    reductionist theory-- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. PowToon is a free tool that allows you to develop cool animated clips and animated presentations for your website, office meeting, sales pitch, nonprofit fundraiser, product launch, video resume, or anything else you could use an animated explainer video. PowToon's animation templates help you create animated presentations and animated explainer videos from scratch. Anyone can produce awesome animations quickly with PowToon, without the cost or hassle other professional animation services require.

    published: 17 Jan 2016
  • I'm a Reductionist | What is Reductionism?

    Hey guys! This is the video by Gary Vanerchuck I was talking about in the first part of my video definately worth every minute best advice https://youtu.be/HwXsFPZp3fQ Anyway guys Just a quick video about a really interesting​ concept about reductionism and the scientific approach, can we really understand complex ideas for e.g. consciousness through science alone? Or is that just reducing the complexity of human consciousness to simple scientific components such as neurons and neuroanatomy. It's really interesting because perhaps taking a more broad or dynamic aproach in dealing with complex ideas like this gives us a wholelistic idea of concepts such as consciousness itself. Anyway guys hope you liked this video comment like and subscribe. Till next guys and girls..... Rihan101 riha...

    published: 25 Mar 2017
  • Robert McCauley on cognitive science and reductionism

    Philosopher of science Robert McCauley, Director of the Center for Mind, Brain and Culture at Emory University, interviewed at LEVYNA.

    published: 09 Nov 2013
  • Eric Kandel: Unconscious Decision Making

    Nobel-Prize winning neuropsychiatrist Eric Kandel describes new research which hints at the possibility of a biological basis to the unconscious mind. Eric Kandel: Reductionism acknowledges from the outset that I'm not looking at the whole picture; I'm only looking at part of the picture. But the reason I'm doing that is because I really want to understand that. Looking at the whole picture is too complicated. So, when Harvey was trying to understand how the body works, he focused in on the heart and he realized that the function of the heart is not to serve as the soul, but to serve as a muscular pump that pushes blood around the circulation.  So I know that your heart and my heart is not the seat of my soul or your soul; it's a pump.  Does that make it any less magical?  Do I have less ...

    published: 07 Jun 2012
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Holism & Reductionism

Holism & Reductionism

  • Order:
  • Duration: 12:58
  • Updated: 25 Sep 2016
  • views: 7994
videos
Follow along with the course eBook: https://goo.gl/sWUF5j See the full course: http://complexitylabs.io/coursesHolism and reductionism represent two paradigms or worldviews within science and philosophy that provide fundamentally different accounts as how to best view, interpret and reason about the world around us. Reductionism places an emphasis on the constituent parts of a system, while holism places an emphasis on the whole system. Twitter: https://goo.gl/Nu6Qap Facebook: https://goo.gl/ggxGMT LinkedIn:https://goo.gl/3v1vwF
https://wn.com/Holism_Reductionism
Reductionism

Reductionism

  • Order:
  • Duration: 4:56
  • Updated: 10 Oct 2012
  • views: 12015
videos
A short introduction to the concepts of reductionism and emergence in philosophy and science, with their profound implications for human phenomena such as free will, consciousness, and morality.
https://wn.com/Reductionism
The Reductionist Delusion

The Reductionist Delusion

  • Order:
  • Duration: 20:26
  • Updated: 30 Apr 2014
  • views: 2469
videos
Please watch this video in fullscreen and high-definition (1080p) for the optimal viewing experience. --- Is life really a game of pinball? Are human actions merely the result of initial conditions, physics, and chance? This view has been adopted by some of the leading scientists of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. However, is it a hypothesis truly scientific? Does the data taken from both experimental science and real life experience support such a claim or does it point to a different conclusion? The Reductionist Delusion presents a critical look, from the position of commonsense illustrated using statistical mathematics, at the theoretical position that all life's actions are the result of initial conditions, physics, and chance. --- This video is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
https://wn.com/The_Reductionist_Delusion
21. Chaos and Reductionism

21. Chaos and Reductionism

  • Order:
  • Duration: 1:37:33
  • Updated: 01 Feb 2011
  • views: 267937
videos
(May 19, 2010) Professor Robert Sapolsky gives what he calls "one of the most difficult lectures of the course" about chaos and reductionism. He references a book that he assigned to his students. This lecture focuses on reduction science and breaking things down to their component parts in order to understand them best. Stanford University: http://www.stanford.edu/ Stanford Department of Biology: http://biology.stanford.edu/ Stanford University Channel on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/stanford
https://wn.com/21._Chaos_And_Reductionism
Lecture 3  Ken Wilber's Scientific Reductionism

Lecture 3 Ken Wilber's Scientific Reductionism

  • Order:
  • Duration: 7:50
  • Updated: 10 Sep 2015
  • views: 502
videos
https://wn.com/Lecture_3_Ken_Wilber's_Scientific_Reductionism
How Reductionism Uncovered Secrets of Long-term and Short-term Memory | Eric Kandel

How Reductionism Uncovered Secrets of Long-term and Short-term Memory | Eric Kandel

  • Order:
  • Duration: 6:52
  • Updated: 26 Oct 2016
  • views: 16351
videos
A powerful scientific method of observation has helped scientists understand the brain. That method closely parallels Nobel Prize-winner Eric Kandel's journey to make his most famous discoveries. Kandel's latest book is "Reductionism in Art and Brain Science: Bridging the Two Cultures" (https://goo.gl/z9xUXK). Read more at BigThink.com: http://bigthink.com/videos/eric-kandel-on-reductionism-and-the-biology-of-memory Follow Big Think here: YouTube: http://goo.gl/CPTsV5 Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BigThinkdotcom Twitter: https://twitter.com/bigthink Transcript - What reductionism allows you to do is to take a complex problem and focus on one component of it and try to understand it in some detail. And sometimes you can just do it by focusing on one component, other times it requires selecting a particular biological system if you're working in biology, in which that component is prominent or easy to study. And that allows you to study in depth the problem. It will be hard to do if you looked at it in all its complexities. For me the reductionist approach was really very profitable and not something that I really thought a lot about before. I originally went to medical school with the idea of becoming a psychoanalyst. I didn't have a strong biological background at all. And then in my senior year at medical school there was a five-month elective period in which you could do whatever you wanted to and I thought that even a psychoanalyst should know something about the brain. And so I took an elective in brain science. There were very few people doing brain science in those days, but Columbia had an outstanding person, Harry Grenfist. And I worked in his lab and I worked with one of his associates Don Perpera and had an absolutely spectacular experience. Read Full Transcript Here: https://goo.gl/IHjkwj.
https://wn.com/How_Reductionism_Uncovered_Secrets_Of_Long_Term_And_Short_Term_Memory_|_Eric_Kandel
Emergence, Top Down Causation and Reductionism

Emergence, Top Down Causation and Reductionism

  • Order:
  • Duration: 2:55
  • Updated: 08 May 2013
  • views: 1717
videos
An interview with Prof. George F. R. Ellis (University of Cape Town, South Africa) on the occasion of his research seminar for The Faraday Institute for Science and Religion, 30 April 2013, in Cambridge.
https://wn.com/Emergence,_Top_Down_Causation_And_Reductionism
Reductionism

Reductionism

  • Order:
  • Duration: 1:03
  • Updated: 09 Jun 2015
  • views: 564
videos
Find out more http://www.TimFreke.com A short clip of philosopher Tim Freke talking about reductionism in science and spirituality.
https://wn.com/Reductionism
Theology and Scientific Reductionism

Theology and Scientific Reductionism

  • Order:
  • Duration: 1:10:02
  • Updated: 08 Jun 2017
  • views: 172
videos
Panelists (from left to right) Dr. Paul Louis Metzger (Professor of Theology of Culture, Multnomah University and Seminary) Dr. Steven Kolmes (Chair of Science, University of Portland) Derrick Peterson (M.Div.T.S., Th.M.) Dr. Sarah Gall (Chair of Biology, Multnomah University) Sharad Yadav (Pastor of Bread and Wine Church, Portland) Dr. David Wilson (Adjunct Professor of Theology, George Fox University)
https://wn.com/Theology_And_Scientific_Reductionism
Samir Okasha - Individualism and reductionism in evolutionary biology

Samir Okasha - Individualism and reductionism in evolutionary biology

  • Order:
  • Duration: 53:26
  • Updated: 30 Mar 2017
  • views: 254
videos
Professor Samir Okasha (University of Bristol) speaks at the seminar series Philosophy of Science: Contemporary Debates, 26th March 2015.
https://wn.com/Samir_Okasha_Individualism_And_Reductionism_In_Evolutionary_Biology
Revise Psychology: Reductionism Preview

Revise Psychology: Reductionism Preview

  • Order:
  • Duration: 1:41
  • Updated: 27 Apr 2015
  • views: 1229
videos
Psychology Revision series for A-level and AP Psychology teachers and students. This revision film uses the example of obesity to outline and evaluate reductionist and holistic approaches in psychology. The full film covers key: • definitions: reductionism, scientific parsimony, holism • applications: obesity, • evaluations: uses and limitations of reductionist and holistic approaches
https://wn.com/Revise_Psychology_Reductionism_Preview
Robert Sapolsky - The usefulness of reductionism and reductive science

Robert Sapolsky - The usefulness of reductionism and reductive science

  • Order:
  • Duration: 5:56
  • Updated: 18 Jun 2016
  • views: 144
videos
21. Chaos and Reductionism http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_njf8jwEGRo 01-31-30 - 01-37-26
https://wn.com/Robert_Sapolsky_The_Usefulness_Of_Reductionism_And_Reductive_Science
Re: Scientific Reductionism

Re: Scientific Reductionism

  • Order:
  • Duration: 10:00
  • Updated: 04 Apr 2009
  • views: 725
videos
Video Cam Direct Upload
https://wn.com/Re_Scientific_Reductionism
Reductionism

Reductionism

  • Order:
  • Duration: 6:10
  • Updated: 28 Dec 2006
  • views: 5861
videos
Reductionism
https://wn.com/Reductionism
What is Reductionism? | Definition of Reductionism | Reductionism Explained

What is Reductionism? | Definition of Reductionism | Reductionism Explained

  • Order:
  • Duration: 23:30
  • Updated: 28 Nov 2017
  • views: 28
videos
Reductionism refers to several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other phenomena, the latter of which are considered in some manner simpler or more fundamental. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy suggests that reductionism is "one of the most used and abused terms in the philosophical lexicon" and suggests a three part division: 1. Ontological reductionism: a belief that the whole of reality consists of a minimal number of parts. 2. Methodological reductionism: the scientific attempt to provide explanation in terms of ever smaller entities. 3. Theory reductionism: the suggestion that a newer theory does not replace or absorb an older one, but reduces it to more basic terms. Theory reduction itself is divisible into three parts: translation, derivation and explanation. ………………………………………………………………………………….. Sources: Text: Text of this video has been taken from Wikipedia, which is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License …………………………………………………………………………………..
https://wn.com/What_Is_Reductionism_|_Definition_Of_Reductionism_|_Reductionism_Explained
Philosophy of Science with Hilary Putnam

Philosophy of Science with Hilary Putnam

  • Order:
  • Duration: 43:57
  • Updated: 09 Nov 2015
  • views: 19409
videos
Bryan Magee and Hilary Putnam discuss some of the basic issues in the philosophy of science and the philosophy of mathematics including the nature of scientific knowledge, methodology, demarcation, objectivity, the notion of truth (the correspondence theory), inductive logic, reductionism, the fact-value dichotomy, materialism, and various other things... Hilary Putnam was an American philosopher, mathematician, and computer scientist who was a central figure in analytic philosophy. He made important contributions to many fields, including logic, philosophy of mind, mathematics, philosophy of language, epistemology, and the philosophy of science. I recommend Putnam's work. You can read his book "Reason, Truth, and History" online here: https://ia902606.us.archive.org/23/items/HilaryPutnam/PutnamHilary-ReasonTruthAndHistory.pdf This interview is from a 1978 BBC program, transcript/subtitles available.
https://wn.com/Philosophy_Of_Science_With_Hilary_Putnam
Reductionism, Dawkins, & Intelligent Design (Barbara Drossel lecture highlights)

Reductionism, Dawkins, & Intelligent Design (Barbara Drossel lecture highlights)

  • Order:
  • Duration: 4:55
  • Updated: 19 Jan 2017
  • views: 111
videos
Barbara Drossel explains some problems with reductionism, which shows up both in Dawkins's thought and in the thinking of some Intelligent Design Theory advocates. FULL LENGTH VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C94d2TtOKJs This project/publication was made possible through the support of a grant from Templeton World Charity Foundation, Inc. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of Templeton World Charity Foundation, Inc.
https://wn.com/Reductionism,_Dawkins,_Intelligent_Design_(Barbara_Drossel_Lecture_Highlights)
Brave New World. Nature, culture and the limits of reductionism, Susan Haack

Brave New World. Nature, culture and the limits of reductionism, Susan Haack

  • Order:
  • Duration: 1:18:17
  • Updated: 28 Sep 2015
  • views: 1496
videos
The lecture of Susan Haack in the lecture series "The Limits of Science VII: Ingenious scholars - brilliant theories". The intro music is a fragment of "Readers! Do You Read?" by Chris Zabriskie (CC BY 4.0).
https://wn.com/Brave_New_World._Nature,_Culture_And_The_Limits_Of_Reductionism,_Susan_Haack
Limits of science and scientific method, alternatives to reductionism   George Ellis, 2004 Templeton Prize winner

Limits of science and scientific method, alternatives to reductionism George Ellis, 2004 Templeton Prize winner

  • Order:
  • Duration: 1:17
  • Updated: 08 Jul 2009
  • views: 554
videos
https://wn.com/Limits_Of_Science_And_Scientific_Method,_Alternatives_To_Reductionism_George_Ellis,_2004_Templeton_Prize_Winner
What is Reductionism in Science?

What is Reductionism in Science?

  • Order:
  • Duration: 0:57
  • Updated: 03 Jan 2018
  • views: 6
videos
Reductionism is breaking down of a complex system in to simple constituent systems to so that laws of physics can be applied on these systems and we can understand the working of the complex system. Kizoa Movie - Video - Slideshow Maker - http://www.kizoa.com
https://wn.com/What_Is_Reductionism_In_Science
reductionism psychology gis

reductionism psychology gis

  • Order:
  • Duration: 3:21
  • Updated: 17 Jan 2016
  • views: 1066
videos
reductionist theory-- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. PowToon is a free tool that allows you to develop cool animated clips and animated presentations for your website, office meeting, sales pitch, nonprofit fundraiser, product launch, video resume, or anything else you could use an animated explainer video. PowToon's animation templates help you create animated presentations and animated explainer videos from scratch. Anyone can produce awesome animations quickly with PowToon, without the cost or hassle other professional animation services require.
https://wn.com/Reductionism_Psychology_Gis
I'm a Reductionist | What is Reductionism?

I'm a Reductionist | What is Reductionism?

  • Order:
  • Duration: 6:11
  • Updated: 25 Mar 2017
  • views: 189
videos
Hey guys! This is the video by Gary Vanerchuck I was talking about in the first part of my video definately worth every minute best advice https://youtu.be/HwXsFPZp3fQ Anyway guys Just a quick video about a really interesting​ concept about reductionism and the scientific approach, can we really understand complex ideas for e.g. consciousness through science alone? Or is that just reducing the complexity of human consciousness to simple scientific components such as neurons and neuroanatomy. It's really interesting because perhaps taking a more broad or dynamic aproach in dealing with complex ideas like this gives us a wholelistic idea of concepts such as consciousness itself. Anyway guys hope you liked this video comment like and subscribe. Till next guys and girls..... Rihan101 rihan-09@hotmail.com Arc North - Never gonna https://youtu.be/z_0u00b1iEQ Epic cinematic - https://youtu.be/l_nyMMvQSQo Adventures - A Himitsu
https://wn.com/I'm_A_Reductionist_|_What_Is_Reductionism
Robert McCauley on cognitive science and reductionism

Robert McCauley on cognitive science and reductionism

  • Order:
  • Duration: 17:21
  • Updated: 09 Nov 2013
  • views: 841
videos
Philosopher of science Robert McCauley, Director of the Center for Mind, Brain and Culture at Emory University, interviewed at LEVYNA.
https://wn.com/Robert_Mccauley_On_Cognitive_Science_And_Reductionism
Eric Kandel: Unconscious Decision Making

Eric Kandel: Unconscious Decision Making

  • Order:
  • Duration: 4:31
  • Updated: 07 Jun 2012
  • views: 117555
videos
Nobel-Prize winning neuropsychiatrist Eric Kandel describes new research which hints at the possibility of a biological basis to the unconscious mind. Eric Kandel: Reductionism acknowledges from the outset that I'm not looking at the whole picture; I'm only looking at part of the picture. But the reason I'm doing that is because I really want to understand that. Looking at the whole picture is too complicated. So, when Harvey was trying to understand how the body works, he focused in on the heart and he realized that the function of the heart is not to serve as the soul, but to serve as a muscular pump that pushes blood around the circulation.  So I know that your heart and my heart is not the seat of my soul or your soul; it's a pump.  Does that make it any less magical?  Do I have less respect for your heart or my heart because I realize how it functions?  No.  Number one.  Number two, once you understand how components function, you'll want to put it into the context of the body as a whole--what are the major arteries that come out of the heart, how do they feed oxygen to the muscles in the body, etcetera, etcetera, etcetera?  So we want to do a reductionism in order to understand particular components, but then as Paul Allen is showing, we need to put the components together.  We need a new synthesis.  And so we need to put it in a larger context.  So that leaves the residual issue as to what degree does the acknowledgment that all mental function, including my religious beliefs, emanate from the brain.  People have difficulty with it.  They want to think there's a mind out there some place that carries on after I'm dead and that mediates a lot of these spiritual values, and I don't find good evidence to support that as far as I can tell.  All mental functions, from the most trivial reflex to the most sublime creative experience, come from the brain.  We have reason to believe that some aspects of free will you are not consciously aware of.  I don't think that necessarily means that you're not free, but you're not consciously aware of it.  And the background from that comes from a famous experiment that Benjamin Libet did, and I forget when it was, 1971, thereabouts, in which he did a fascinating experiment.  He asked subjects to make a decision to move their hand and to indicate by pressing a button when they're making that decision.  And he had electrodes on their head, and it turned out that before I made a decision to move my hand, an electrical potential appeared in my brain that preceded my conscious decision to move the hand.  So you can be aware of my wanting to move the hand consciously without my being aware of it.  That means the decision was made unconsciously.Now, when Ben Libet came out with that, it shook up the scientific community.  Do you think Freud would have been surprised about that?  He said from the very beginning, much of our mental life is unconscious.  We now know we make a lot of decisions, we choose our partner in part by unconscious evaluations.  There are lots of decisions that are made unconsciously then consciously. Conscious decision-making is very good when there are two alternatives because you can focus consciously very effectively on one thing at a time.  If you've got a lot of options . . . now this was not my case, but you who have lots of women who are interested in you, probably can choose from many of them.  That decision that you have to make is likely to be more effective if you make it unconsciously.  So there is now a whole psychology on unconscious decision-making that is emerging, in part stimulated by Libet's interest but also a continuation from Freud's interest.   Directed / Produced byJonathan Fowler & Elizabeth Rodd
https://wn.com/Eric_Kandel_Unconscious_Decision_Making
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